FACE Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment project

Year: 1994
Location: Phoenix, Arizona, USA
Status: Concluded

The research was based on free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments conducted on wheat, grapevine, potato and other crops. The tests were conducted with abundant and limited irrigation and fertilizer nitrogen supplies while analyzing the response of plants, soil and microclimatic conditions to elevated CO2 and its interactions with water and nitrogen treatments. The data were then modeled to predict likely future crop productivity with the expected global change.



  • Miglietta F, Giuntoli A, Hinkson C, The long term response to elevated CO2 of a Mediterranean grassland community growing near natural carbon dioxide vents in central Italy, VII Conference on Mediterranean-type Ecosystems Reaca-Via del Mar, Chile, 23-29 October 1994.
  • Bindi M, Miglietta F, Giuntoli A, Lanini M, A simple Mini-FACE system to fumigate small plots with carbon dioxide, Report for the Environmental “Crop Change” Project, 1994.
  • AA.VV., FACE-ing the future, Agricultural Research, US Departmpent of Agriculture, april 1995, p. 4-7.
  • Bettarini I, Giuntoli A, Miglietta F, Raschi A, Using stable carbon isotope ratio of C4 plants to monitor mean effective atmospheric CO2 concetrations, Agricoltura Mediterranea, Special Volume, 1995, p. 278-281.
  • Bacci L, Giuntoli A, Lorenzini G, Sabatini F, Detection of SO2 effects on ryegrass (Lolium perenne) by means of reflectance measurements, Agricoltura Mediterranea, Special Volume, 1995, p. 156-162.
  • Magliulo V, Miglietta F, Cerio L, Giuntoli A, Effetti di elevate concentrazioni di anidride carbonica sul tasso di fotosintesi e sulla temperatura radiativa della patata, in Atti: S. ItE., 1996, 17:23-26.
  • Miglietta F, Giuntoli A, Bindi M, The effect of free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) and soil nitrogen availability on the photosynthetic capacity of wheat, Photosynthesis Research, 1996, 47(3) 281-290.
  • Giuntoli A, Vaccari F P, Bettarini I, Miglietta F, Exposing a calcareous grassland community of a CO2 spring to ambient level: two years of data 1996, COST 619 6th meeting of the working groups and management Committee, University of Essex ,Colchester (England), 22-24 Novembre 1996.
  • Giuntoli A, Increased carbon dioxide concentration affects photoinhibition of photosynthesis in wheat and grapevine in the field (Tesi di dottorato), Colchester (England): University of Essex, 2000, p. 227.
  • Vaccari F P, Bettarini I, Giuntoli A, Miglietta F, Raschi A, Mediterranean grassland community under elevated CO2: observations from a CO2 spring, in: Journal of Mediterranean Ecology, 2001, 2:41-50.
  • Gioli B, Vaccari F P, Bettarini I, Giuntoli A, Miglietta F, Long-term response of photosynthetic capacity and stomatal conductance of Scirpus lacustris growing under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, Dimensions of Pollution, A.H. Ansari, 2001.
  • Vaccari F P, Miglietta F, Magliulo V, Giuntoli A, Cerio L, Bindi M, Free Air CO2 Enrichment of potato Solanum tuberosum L.: photosynthetic capacity of leaves, in: Italian Journal of Agronomy, 2001.
  • Bindi M, Miglietta F, Vaccari F, Magliulo E, Giuntoli A, Growth and Quality Responses of Potato to Elevated CO2, in: Managed Ecosystems and CO2 Case Studies, Processes, and Perspectives, a cura di: Nösberger J, Long S P, Norby R J, Stitt M, Hendrey G R, Blum H, Ecological Studies, vol. 187, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006, p. 105-119.